There are very few martial art forms existing in the world today in which “a weak individual can overcome a strong opponent”. And one such form of combat which encourages the “underdog conquering the favourite concept” is the “Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu”. Now, the Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu is a martial art form which comprises of “5 primary ground positions” that a fighter may use during a bout. They are as follows:
a. PRIMARY POSITION 1: SIDE CONTROL
“Pushing an opponent to the ground from the side of the body” is the best way to describe a primary position used in Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu referred to as “Side control”. In this position, the fighter in the dominant position basically applies weight on the chest of the opponent. Furthermore, more pressure may be then applied on the shoulder and hips of opponent via the use of elbows, knees, and shoulders of the fighter in the dominant position.
b. PRIMARY POSITION 2: FULL MOUNT
“A Brazilian Jiu-Jitsu fighter literally sitting on top of an opponent’s chest” is what in technical terms is referred to as the “Full Mount” position. In this primary position, the dominant fighter applies extreme pressure on the opponent using “bodyweight and the hips”. Additionally, in this position the dominant fighter may also push the “knee” into the armpit of the opponent so as to reduce arm movement. Furthermore, from this position moves such as “armlocks” or “chokes” can also be attempted.
c. PRIMARY POSITION 3: BACK MOUNT
Also commonly referred to as “back grab or attacking at the back” is a primary position known as “Back Mount”. In this position, the dominant fighter initially holds on firmly to the back of the opponent. The fighter then wraps the legs and hooks the heel on to the thigh of the opponent. Furthermore, the fighter at the same time controls the upper body by wrapping an arm around either the neck or the chest of the opponent.
d. PRIMARY POSITION 4: GUARD/GRAPPLING
“Controlling an opponent using the leg” is the essence of this primary position referred to as “Guard/Grappling”. In this position, the fighter basically with the use of the legs/feet pushes and pulls and attempts to severely restrict the movements of the opponents. Furthermore, this position is used mainly when a fighter is in trouble and wants to launch a “counterattack” on the opponent. In addition, there are three types of “guard/grappling” positions. They are as follows:
- Closed Guard: In this position essentially, a fighter wraps the leg around the trunk of the opponent. At the same time, the ankles of the fighter are firmly closed so that the fighter is in complete control as well as to prevent the opponent from escaping.
- Half Guard: In this position basically, one leg of the dominant fighter is controlled by the opponent. This position is essentially “defensive” in nature. In addition, this position prevents the dominant fighter from taking control of the bout by getting into either a side control or full mount position.
- Open Guard: In this position, the non-dominant fighter attempts to use his feet by pushing or pulling in an extremely energetic manner. Furthermore, there are a number of variations available in this position and they include Butterfly Guard, De La Riva Guard, X-Guard, Spider Guard, Lapel Guard, and Worm Guard.
e. PRIMARY POSITION 5: SUBMISSION
This primary position is basically divided into two main categories i.e. joint locks and chokes/strangles. They are as follows:
a. Joint Locks:
“Alienating the limb of a fighter, and thereby causing the joint to move past the normal range of motion” is what this position known as Joint Locks is mainly used for. Furthermore, pressure is applied via joint locks by the fighter in a controlled manner until the opponent eventually gives up and accepts defeat. In addition, a compression lock in which basically the muscle of the fighter is compressed against a large bone such as the shin or wrist to cause severe pain may also be used.
Also called “air chokes or blood chokes” is a primary position known as “Chokes/strangles”. In this position, a fighter applies pressure on the carotid arteries and at times even at the nerve baroreceptors located in the neck of an opponent.